Politics

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Union Minister Nitin Gadkari has given a big statement amid the political developments in Maharashtra. Nitin Gadkari, who reached Maharashtra on Thursday, said that anything is possible in cricket and politics. Sometimes you feel that you are losing the match, but the result is completely reversed. केंद्रीय मंत्री नितिन गडकरी ने महाराष्ट्र में जारी सियासी घटनाक्रम के बीच बड़ा बयान दिया है. गुरुवार को महाराष्ट्र पहुंचे नितिन गडकरी ने कहा कि क्रिकेट और राजनीति में कुछ भी संभव है. कभी आपको लगता है कि आप म...

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Lalu Prasad Yadav was a leader who made the impossible possible. Who did not care for the criticisms. A person who became the voice of the poor. Who started the journey from the margins and became one of the brightest politicians on the political pitch. Lalu Yadav first became the CM of Bihar and later worked as the Central Railway Minister. Know about the journey of a person to become the most expert player of political ghettoism. लालू प्रसाद यादव एक ऐसे नेता रहे जिसने नामुमकिन को भी मुमकिन बनाया। जिस...

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Politics

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics
Politics is a set of activities associated with the governance of a country, state or an area. It involves making decisions that apply to group of members.It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state.

Politics is a set of activities associated with the governance of a country, state or an area. It involves making decisions that apply to group of members.[1]

It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state.[2] The academic study focusing on just politics, which is therefore more targeted than general political science, is sometimes referred to as politology (not to be confused with politicology, a synonym for political science).[3]

In modern nation-states, people often form political parties to represent their ideas. Members of a party agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders.[4]

An election is usually a competition between different parties.[5] Some examples of political parties worldwide are: the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, the Democratic Party (D) in the United States, the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom, the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) in Germany and the Indian National Congress in India. Politics is a multifaceted word. It has a set of fairly specific meanings that are descriptive and nonjudgmental (such as "the art or science of government" and "political principles"), but does often colloquially carry a negative connotation.[1][6][7] The word has been used negatively for many years: the British national anthem as published in 1745 calls on God to "Confound their politics",[8] and the phrase "play politics", for example, has been in use since at least 1853, when abolitionist Wendell Phillips declared: "We do not play politics; anti-slavery is no half-jest with us."[9]

A variety of methods are deployed in politics, which include promoting one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws, and exercising force, including warfare against adversaries.[10][11][12][13][14] Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments, companies and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level.

A political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a given society. The history of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and the works of Confucius.

Etymology

Women voter outreach from 1935.

The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of Aristotle's book Politics (from Ancient Greek: Πολιτικά, romanized: Politiká or Polis, meaning "affairs of the cities"). The book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as "Polettiques";[15] it became "politics" in Modern English. The singular politic first attested in English 1430 and comes from Middle French politique, in turn from Latin politicus,[16] which is the Latinization of the Greek πολιτικός (politikos), meaning amongst others "of, for, or relating to citizens", "civil", "civic", "belonging to the state",[17] in turn from πολίτης (polites), "citizen"[17] and that from πόλις (polis), "city".[17]

Classifications

Formal politics refers to the operation of a constitutional system of government and publicly defined institutions and procedures.[18] Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics.[18] Many people view formal politics as something outside of themselves, but that can still affect their daily lives.[18]

Semi-formal politics is politics in government associations such as neighborhood associations, or student governments where student government political party politics is often important.

Informal politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals. Generally, this includes anything affecting one's daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, or how one person or group exercises influence over another.[18] Informal Politics is typically understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that "politics is everywhere".[18]

History of state politics

The history of politics is reflected in the origin, development, and economics of the institutions of government.

The state

The origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare. Historically speaking, all political communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare.[19]

Kings, emperors and other types of monarchs in many countries including China and Japan, were considered divine. Of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the American Revolution put an end to the "divine right of kings".[citation needed] Nevertheless, the monarchy is among the longest-lasting political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria[20] to the 21st century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of hereditary monarchy.

The monarch often, even in absolute monarchies, ruled their kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which they could not maintain power. As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, which may be considered the germ of constitutional government.[21][22]

The greatest of the monarch's subordinates, the earls and dukes in England and Scotland, the dukes and counts in Continental Europe, always sat as a right on the council.[citation needed] A conqueror wages war upon the vanquished for vengeance or for plunder but an established kingdom exacts tribute.[citation needed] One of the functions of the council is to keep the coffers of the monarch full. Another is the satisfaction of military service and the establishment of lordships by the king to satisfy the task of collecting taxes and soldiers.[23]

Themes

Activism is a form of politics.

Forms of political organization

There are many forms of political organization, including states, non-government organizations (NGOs) and international organizations such as the United Nations. States are perhaps the predominant institutional form of political governance, where a state is understood as an institution and a government is understood as the regime in power.

According to Aristotle, states are classified into monarchies, aristocracies, timocracies, democracies, oligarchies, and tyrannies. Due to changes across the history of politics, this classification has been abandoned.

All states are varieties of a single organizational form, the sovereign state. All the great powers of the modern world rule on the principle of sovereignty. Sovereign power may be vested on an individual as in an autocratic government or it may be vested on a group as in a constitutional government. Constitutions are written documents that specify and limit the powers of the different branches of government. Although a constitution is a written document, there is also an unwritten constitution. The unwritten constitution is continually being written by the legislative and judiciary branch of government; this is just one of those cases in which the nature of the circumstances determines the form of government that is most appropriate.[24] England did set the fashion of written constitutions during the Civil War but after the Restoration abandoned them to be taken up later by the American Colonies after their emancipation and then France after the Revolution and the rest of Europe including the European colonies.

There are many forms of government. One form is a strong central government as in France and China. Another form is local government, such as the ancient divisions in England that are comparatively weaker but less bureaucratic. These two forms helped to shape the practice of federal government, first in Switzerland, then in the United States in 1776, in Canada in 1867 and in Germany in 1871 and in 1901, Australia. Federal states introduced the new principle of agreement or contract. Compared to a federation, a confederation has a more dispersed system of judicial power.[25] In the American Civil War, the argument by the Confederate States that a State could secede from the Union was deemed unconstitutional by the supreme court.[26]

According to professor A. V. Dicey in An Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, the essential features of a federal constitution are: a) A written supreme constitution in order to prevent disputes between the jurisdictions of the Federal and State authorities; b) A distribution of power between the Federal and State governments and c) A Supreme Court vested with the power to interpret the Constitution and enforce the law of the land remaining independent of both the executive and legislative branches.[27]

Global politics

Global politics include different practices of political globalization in relation to questions of social power: from global patterns of governance to issues of globalizing conflict. The 20th century witnessed the outcome of two world wars and not only the rise and fall of the Third Reich but also the rise and relative fall of communism. The development of the atomic bomb gave the United States a more rapid end to its conflict in Japan in World War II. Later, the hydrogen bomb became the ultimate weapon of mass destruction.

Global politics also concerns the rise of global and international organizations. The United Nations has served as a forum for peace in a world threatened by nuclear war, "The invention of nuclear and space weapons has made war unacceptable as an instrument for achieving political ends."[28] Although an all-out final nuclear holocaust is radically undesirable for man, "nuclear blackmail" comes into question not only on the issue of world peace but also on the issue of national sovereignty.[29] On a Sunday in 1962, the world stood still at the brink of nuclear war during the October Cuban Missile Crisis from the implementation of U.S. vs Soviet Union nuclear blackmail policy.

According to political science professor Paul James, global politics is affected by values: norms of human rights, ideas of human development, and beliefs such as cosmopolitanism about how we should relate to each:

Cosmopolitanism can be defined as a global politics that, firstly, projects a sociality of common political engagement among all human beings across the globe, and, secondly, suggests that this sociality should be either ethically or organizationally privileged over other forms of sociality.[30]

Political corruption

William Pitt the Elder, speaking before the British House of Lords, 9 January 1770, observed: "Unlimited power is apt to corrupt the minds of those who possess it."[31] This was echoed more famously by John Dalberg-Acton over a century later: "Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely."[32]

Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by private persons or corporations not directly involved with the government. An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if the act is directly related to their official duties and/or power.[33] The corruption in third World dictatorships is usually more blatant. For example, government cronies may be given exclusive right to make arbitrage profit by exploiting a fixed rate mechanism in government currency. In democracies corruption is often more indirect. Trade union leaders may be given priority in housing queues, giving them indirectly a worth of millions.[34]

Forms of corruption vary, but include corruption, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, patronage, graft, and embezzlement. While corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise it may be legal but considered immoral.[35] Worldwide, bribery alone is estimated to involve over 1 trillion US dollars annually.[36] A state of unrestrained political corruption is known as a kleptocracy, literally meaning "rule by thieves".[37]

Political parties

A political party is a political organization that typically seeks to attain and maintain political power within government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns, educational outreach or protest actions. Parties often espouse an expressed ideology or vision bolstered by a written platform with specific goals, forming a coalition among disparate interests.[38]

Politics as an academic discipline

Political science, the study of politics, examines the acquisition and application of power.[39] Political scientist Harold Lasswell defined politics as "who gets what, when, and how".[40] Related areas of study include political philosophy, which seeks a rationale for politics and an ethic of public behaviour, as well as examining the preconditions for the formation of political communities;[41] political economy, which attempts to develop understandings of the relationships between politics and the economy and the governance of the two; and public administration, which examines the practices of governance.[42] The philosopher Charles Blattberg, who has defined politics as "responding to conflict with dialogue", offers an account which distinguishes political philosophies from political ideologies.[43]

The first academic chair devoted to politics in the United States was the chair of history and political science at Columbia University, first occupied by Prussian émigré Francis Lieber in 1857.[44]

Freedom of Hope for Politics poster

Political values

Political views differ on average across nations. A recreation of the Inglehart–Welzel Cultural Map of the World based on the World Values Survey.

Several different political spectra have been proposed.

Left–right

Political analysts and politicians divide politics into left wing and right wing politics, often also using the idea of center politics as a middle path of policy between the right and left. This classification is comparatively recent (it was not used by Aristotle or Hobbes, for instance), and dates from the French Revolution era, when those members of the National Assembly who supported the republic, the common people and a secular society sat on the left and supporters of the monarchy, aristocratic privilege and the Church sat on the right.[45]

The meanings behind the labels have become more complicated over the years. A particularly influential event was the publication of the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848. The Manifesto suggested a course of action for a proletarian revolution to overthrow the bourgeois society and abolish private property, in the belief that this would lead to a classless and stateless society.[46][47][page needed]

The meaning of left-wing and right-wing varies considerably between different countries and at different times, but generally speaking, it can be said that the right wing often values tradition and inequality while the left wing often values progress and egalitarianism, with the center seeking a balance between the two such as with social democracy, libertarianism or regulated capitalism.[48]

According to Norberto Bobbio, one of the major exponents of this distinction, the Left believes in attempting to eradicate social inequality – believing it to be unethical or unnatural[49] while the Right regards most social inequality as the result of ineradicable natural inequalities, and sees attempts to enforce social equality as utopian or authoritarian.[50] Some ideologies, notably Christian Democracy, claim to combine left and right wing politics; according to Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood, "In terms of ideology, Christian Democracy has incorporated many of the views held by liberals, conservatives and socialists within a wider framework of moral and Christian principles."[51] Movements which claim or formerly claimed to be above the left-right divide include Fascist Terza Posizione economic politics in Italy and Peronism in Argentina.[52][53]

political compass chart
Chart showing the political positions Authoritarian to Libertarian and Left-wing to Right-wing on a 2D plane.

Authoritarian–libertarian

Authoritarianism and libertarianism refer to the amount of individual freedom each person possesses in that society relative to the state. One author describes authoritarian political systems as those where "individual rights and goals are subjugated to group goals, expectations and conformities",[54] while libertarians generally oppose the state and hold the individual as sovereign. In their purest form, libertarians are anarchists [55], who argue for the total abolition of the state, of political parties and of other political entities, while the purest authoritarians are, by definition, totalitarians who support state control over all aspects of society. [56]

For instance, classical liberalism (also known as laissez-faire liberalism,[57]) is a doctrine stressing individual freedom and limited government. This includes the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, free markets, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitation of government, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of John Locke, Adam Smith, David Hume, David Ricardo, Voltaire, Montesquieu and others. According to the libertarian Institute for Humane Studies, "the libertarian, or 'classical liberal,' perspective is that individual well-being, prosperity, and social harmony are fostered by 'as much liberty as possible' and 'as little government as necessary.'"[58] For anarchist political philosopher L. Susan Brown "Liberalism and anarchism are two political philosophies that are fundamentally concerned with individual freedom yet differ from one another in very distinct ways. Anarchism shares with liberalism a radical commitment to individual freedom while rejecting liberalism's competitive property relations."[59]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Rod Hague; Martin Harrop (31 May 2013). Comparative Government and Politics: An Introduction. Macmillan International Higher Education. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-1-137-31786-5.
  2. "Political | Definition of Political by Merriam-Webster". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  3. "Politics Samachar". nativekhabar.com. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  4. Giovanni Sartori (2005). Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis. ECPR Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-9547966-1-7.
  5. Richard Rose; Neil Munro (1 April 2009). Parties and Elections in New European Democracies. ECPR Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-9558203-2-8.
  6. William A. Joseph (14 March 2014). Politics in China: An Introduction, Second Edition. Oxford University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-19-938483-9.
  7. Birkland (18 May 2015). Introduction to the Policy Process. M.E. Sharpe. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-7656-2731-5.
  8. God save our lord the king, The Gentleman's Magazine 15 October 1745
  9. Johnston, Alexander; Woodburn, James Albert (1903). "American Orations: V. The anti-slavery struggle".
  10. Bo Hammarlund (1985). Politik utan partier: studier i Sveriges politiska liv 1726-1727. Almqvist & Wiksell International. p. 8.
  11. Linda P. Brady (1 October 2017). The Politics of Negotiation: America's Dealings with Allies, Adversaries, and Friends. University of North Carolina Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-4696-3960-4.
  12. Mary Hawkesworth; Maurice Kogan (7 November 2013). Encyclopedia of Government and Politics: 2-volume Set. Routledge. p. 299. ISBN 978-1-136-91332-7.
  13. Steven L. Taylor (1 June 2012). 30-Second Politics: The 50 most thought-provoking ideas in politics, each explained in half a minute. Icon Books Limited. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-84831-427-6.
  14. Shannon L. Blanton; Charles W. Kegley (1 January 2016). World Politics: Trend and Transformation, 2016–2017. Cengage Learning. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-305-50487-5.
  15. The Diets and Sayings of the Philosophers (Early English Text Society, Original Series No. 211, 1941; reprinted 1961), p. 154: "the book of Etiques and of Polettiques".
  16. Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short. "A Latin Dictionary". Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  17. 1 2 3 Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott. "A Greek-English Lexicon". Perseus Digital Library. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 Painter, Joe; Jeffrey, Alex. "Political Geography".
  19. Carneiro, Robert L. (21 August 1970). "A Theory of the Origin of the State". Science. 169 (3947): 733–738. Bibcode:1970Sci...169..733C. doi:10.1126/science.169.3947.733. PMID 17820299.
  20. "Sumerian King List" (PDF). Retrieved 7 April 2012.
  21. "European Absolutism And Power Politics", International World History Project, 1998, retrieved 22 April 2017
  22. "Constitutional Monarchy". British Monarchist League Ltd. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  23. Jenks, Edward. A history of politics. pp. 73–96. The origin of the State, or Political Society, is to be found in the development of the art of military warfare.
  24. "Britain's unwritten constitution". The British Library. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  25. "Confederation vs Federation – Difference and Comparison". Diffen. Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  26. Texas v. White, 74, 1869, p. 700, retrieved 25 February 2019
  27. Jenks, Edward (1900). A history of politics. J. M. Dent & Co. pp. 1–164. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  28. Rabinowitch, Eugene (June 1973). Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc. p. 13. ISSN 0096-3402. ...the rationale of traditional patterns of world politics.
  29. Dulles, Allen (2006). The Craft of Intelligence. Globe Pequot. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-59921-577-8. ...using 'nuclear blackmail' as a threat to intimidate other countries.
  30. James, Paul (2014). Globalization and Politics, Vol. 4: Political Philosophies of the Global. London: Sage Publications. pp. x. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  31. Safire, William, ed. (2008). Safire's Political Dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 566.
  32. Dalberg-Acton, John (Lord Acton). Letter to Bishop Mandell Creighton, April 5, 1887. Published in Historical Essays and Studies, edited by J. N. Figgis and R. V. Laurence (London: Macmillan, 1907)
  33. "Political Corruption Law & Definition". USLegal. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  34. Tino Sanadaji, Tio tusen miljarder: Skuldkalaset och den förträngda baksmällan (2018), kapitel 8
  35. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/corruption
  36. "African corruption 'on the wane'". BBC News – Business.
  37. Andrew Wedeman (3 April 2012). Double Paradox: Rapid Growth and Rising Corruption in China. Cornell University Press. p. 61. ISBN 0-8014-6474-9.
  38. Robin T. Pettitt (24 June 2014). Contemporary Party Politics. Macmillan International Higher Education. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-137-41264-5.
  39. Safire, William (2008). Safire's Political Dictionary. Oxford University Press US. p. 566. ISBN 978-0-19-534334-2. Power tends to corrupt; absolute power corrupts absolutely.
  40. Schmidt, Barbara A.; Bardes, Mack C.; Shelley, Steffen W. (2011). American Government and Politics Today: The Essentials (2011–2012 Student ed.). Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-538-49719-0.
  41. Laurie, Timothy; Stark, Hannah (2017), "Love's Lessons: Intimacy, Pedagogy and Political Community", Angelaki: Journal of the Theoretical Humanities, 22 (4): 69–79
  42. "Public administration - Principles of public administration". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  43. Blattberg, Charles (July 2001). "Political Philosophies and Political Ideologies". Public Affairs Quarterly. 15 (3): 193–217. ISSN 0887-0373. SSRN 1755117.
  44. Farr, James; Seidelman, Raymond (1993). Discipline and history. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-06512-7. ...a chair at Columbia in 1857 as professor of history and political science, the very first of its kind in America.
  45. Andrew Knapp and Vincent Wright (2006). The Government and Politics of France. Routledge.
  46. Jon M. Shepard (12 January 2009). Cengage Advantage Books: Sociology. Cengage Learning. p. 214. ISBN 0-495-59901-8.
  47. Marx, Karl; Engels, Friedrich (1 January 2002). The Communist Manifesto. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-044757-6.
  48. Daniel J. Levinson. "Conservatism and Radicalism". International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  49. Gelderloos, Peter (2010). Anarchy Works.
  50. Bobbio, Norberto, Left and Right: The Significance of a Political Distinction (translated by Allan Cameron), 1997, University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-06246-5
  51. Roberts and Hogwood, European Politics Today, Manchester University Press, 1997
  52. Tore., Bjorgo, (2014). Terror from the Extreme Right. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. ISBN 9781135209308. OCLC 871861016.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  53. "bale p.40" (PDF). Retrieved 25 February 2018.
  54. Markus Kemmelmeier; et al. (2003). "Individualism, Collectivism, and Authoritarianism in Seven Societies". Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 34 (3): 304–322. doi:10.1177/0022022103034003005.
  55. afaq. "150 years of Libertarian". Anarchists Writers.
  56. Dictionary.com
  57. Ian Adams, Political Ideology Today (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001), 20.
  58. What Is Libertarian?, Institute for Humane Studies Archived 24 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  59. L. Susan Brown. The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism, and Anarchism. Black Rose Books Ltd. 1993

References

Politics of the United Kingdom

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_the_United_Kingdom
The United Kingdom is a unitary state with devolution that is governed within the framework of a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy in which the monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, is the head of state while the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, currently Boris Johnson, is the head of government.

Politics of the United States

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_the_United_States
The United States is a federal republic in which the president, Congress and federal courts share powers reserved to the national government, according to its Constitution.

Politics of China

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_China
The politics of the People's Republic of China takes place in a framework of a socialist republic run by a single party, the Communist Party of China, headed by the General Secretary.

Politics of France

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_France
The politics of France take place with the framework of a semi-presidential system determined by the French Constitution of the French Fifth Republic.

Politics of Canada

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Canada
The politics of Canada function within a framework of parliamentary democracy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions.

Politics of India

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_India
The politics of India works within the framework of the country's constitution. India is a federal parliamentary democratic republic in which the President of India is the head of state and the Prime Minister of India is the head of government.

Politics of Russia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Russia
The politics of Russia take place in the framework of the federal semi-presidential republic of Russia.

Politics of Germany

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Germany
Germany is a democratic, federal parliamentary republic, where federal legislative power is vested in the Bundestag (the parliament of Germany) and the Bundesrat (the representative body of the Länder, Germany's regional states).

Politics of Iran

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Iran
The politics of Iran take place in a framework that officially combines elements of theocracy and presidential democracy.

Politics of Spain

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Spain
The politics of Spain takes place under the framework established by the Constitution of 1978. Spain is established as a social and democratic sovereign country wherein the national sovereignty is vested in the people, from which the powers of the state emanate.The form of government in Spain is a parliamentary monarchy, that is, a social representative democratic constitutional monarchy in which the monarch is the head of state, while the prime minister—whose official title is "President of the Government"—is the head of government.

Politics of global warming

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_global_warming
The complex politics of global warming results from numerous cofactors arising from the global economy's interdependence on carbon dioxide (CO2) emitting hydrocarbon energy sources and because CO2 is directly implicated in global warming—making global warming a non-traditional environmental challenge.

Politics of Scotland

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Scotland
Scotland is a country which is currently in a political union with the rest of the United Kingdom. Having been directly governed by the UK Government since 1707, a system of devolution was established in 1999, after the Scottish people voted by a firm majority to re-establish a primary law making Scottish Parliament in a referendum held in 1997.

Politics of the Netherlands

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_the_Netherlands
The politics of the Netherlands take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, a constitutional monarchy and a decentralised unitary state.

Politics of the Republic of China

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_the_Republic_of_China
The politics of the Republic of China take place in a framework of a representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) is head of government, and of a multi-party system.

Politics of Bangladesh

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Bangladesh
Politics of Bangladesh takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Bangladesh is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.

Politics of Saudi Arabia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Saudi_Arabia
The politics of Saudi Arabia takes place in the context of a totalitarian absolute monarchy with Islamist lines, where the King is both the head of state and government.

Politics of Italy

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Italy
The politics of Italy are conducted through a parliamentary republic with a multi-party system. Italy has been a democratic republic since 2 June 1946, when the monarchy was abolished by popular referendum and a constituent assembly was elected to draft a constitution, which was promulgated on 1 January 1948.

Politics of Myanmar

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Myanmar
Myanmar (also known as Burma) is a unitary parliamentary republic under its constitution of 2008. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Myanmar an "authoritarian regime" in 2018. The military of Burma holds a large amount of power in the government, despite the end of the last Burmese military dictatorship.

Politics of Malaysia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Malaysia
Politics of Malaysia takes place in the framework of a federal representative democratic constitutional monarchy, in which the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is head of state and the Prime Minister of Malaysia is the head of government.

Politics and sports

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_and_sports
Politics and sports or sports diplomacy describes the use of sport as a means to influence diplomatic, social, and political relations.

Politics of Brazil

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Brazil
The politics of Brazil take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system.

Politics of Vietnam

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Vietnam
The politics of Vietnam are defined by a single-party socialist republic framework, where the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam is the Party leader and head of the Politburo, holding the highest position in the one-party system.

Politics of Hong Kong

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Hong_Kong
The politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by its quasi-constitutional document, the Hong Kong Basic Law, its own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government and of the Special Administrative Region and of a politically constrained multi-party system.

Politics of Greece

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Greece
The politics of Greece takes place in a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Greece is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.

Politics of Denmark

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Denmark
The politics of Denmark take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, a constitutional monarchy and a decentralised unitary state in which the monarch of Denmark, Queen Margrethe II, is head of state.

Politics of Australia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Australia
The politics of Australia take place within the framework of a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.

Politics of Cambodia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Cambodia
The politics of Cambodia are defined within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, in which the King serves as the head of state, and the prime minister is the head of government.

Politics of Afghanistan

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Afghanistan
The politics of Afghanistan consists of the council of ministers, provincial governors and the national assembly, with a president serving as the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Afghan Armed Forces.

Politics of the Republic of Ireland

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_the_Republic_of_Ireland
Ireland is a parliamentary, representative democratic republic and a member state of the European Union.

Politics of Quebec

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Quebec
The politics of Quebec are centred on a provincial government resembling that of the other Canadian provinces, namely a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy.

Politics of Harry Potter

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Harry_Potter
There are many published theories about the politics of the Harry Potter books by J. K. Rowling, which range from them containing criticism of racism to anti-government sentiments.

Politics (Aristotle)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_(Aristotle)
Politics (Greek: Πολιτικά, Politiká) is a work of political philosophy by Aristotle, a 4th-century BC Greek philosopher.

Politics of Romania

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Romania
Romania's political framework is a semi-presidential representative democratic republic where the Prime Minister is the head of government while the President represents the country internationally, signs some decrees, approves laws promulgated by parliament and nominations as head of state.

Politics of Belgium

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Belgium
The politics of Belgium take place in the framework of a federal, representative democratic, constitutional monarchy.

Politics of England

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_England
The Politics of England forms the major part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with England being more populous than all the other countries of the United Kingdom put together.

Politics of New Zealand

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_New_Zealand
The politics of New Zealand function within a framework of a unitary parliamentary representative democracy.

Politics of Wales

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Wales
Politics in Wales forms a distinctive polity in the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Wales as one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom (UK).

Politics of Cuba

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Cuba
Cuba has had a communist political system since 1959 based on the "one state – one party" principle. Cuba is constitutionally defined as a Marxist–Leninist socialist state guided by the political ideas of Karl Marx, one of the fathers of historical materialism, Friedrich Engels and Vladimir Lenin.

Politics of Austria

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Austria
The politics of Austria take place within the framework of the federal parliamentary republic of Austria, with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government.

Politics of Singapore

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Singapore
The politics of Singapore takes the form of a parliamentary representative democratic republic whereby the President of Singapore is the head of state, the Prime Minister of Singapore is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.

Politics of Argentina

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Argentina
The politics of Argentina take place in the framework of what the Constitution defines as a federal presidential representative democratic Republic, where the President of Argentina is both Head of State and Head of Government.

Politics of Finland

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Finland
The politics of Finland take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy. Finland is a republic whose head of state is President Sauli Niinistö, who leads the nation's foreign policy and is the supreme commander of the Finnish Defence Forces.

Politics of Thailand

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Thailand
Until 22 May 2014 the politics of Thailand were conducted within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, whereby the prime minister is the head of government and a hereditary monarch is head of state.

Politics of Minnesota

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Minnesota
Minnesota is known for a politically active citizenry, with populism being a longstanding force among the state's political parties.

Politics of Switzerland

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Switzerland
Switzerland is a semi-direct democratic federal republic. The federal legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Federal Assembly, the National Council and the Council of States.

Politics of Northern Ireland

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Northern_Ireland
Since 1998, Northern Ireland has devolved government within the United Kingdom. The government and Parliament of the United Kingdom are responsible for reserved and excepted matters.

Politics of Pakistan

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Pakistan
The politics of Pakistan takes place within the framework established by the constitution. The country is a federal parliamentary republic in which provincial governments enjoy a high degree of autonomy and residuary powers.

Politics of Turkmenistan

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Turkmenistan
The politics of Turkmenistan takes place in the framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Turkmenistan is both head of state and head of government.

Politics of Azerbaijan

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_Azerbaijan
The Politics of Azerbaijan takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential republic, with the President of Azerbaijan as the head of state, and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan as head of government.